Piotr Napierała

Piotr Napierała (2011) Piotr Napierała at the Polish-Spanish conference about espionage as an instrument of state policy, organised by Catholic University of Lublin and the Instituto de Inteligencia of the Charles III University of Madrid – Lublin 27-29.10.2008 Piotr Marek Napierała (born May 18, 1982) is a Polish historian, born in Poznań. Napierała deals with early modern history, especially with political culture of the British, French and German Enlightenment, and its opponents. He studied history at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, and has written his doctoral thesis about the British and French concepts of political freedom in 17th and 18th Century. Piotr Napierała is son of a psychologist Barbara Harwas-Napierała. Books[edit] Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745) – twórca brytyjskiej potęgi, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań 2008. ISBN 978-83-232-1898-2 Hesja-Darmstadt w XVIII stuleciu. Wielcy władcy małego państwa, Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań 2009. ISBN 978-83-232-2007-7 Światowa metropolia. Życie codzienne w osiemnastowiecznym Londynie, Novae Res, Gdynia 2010. ISBN 978-83-61194-43-9 “Kraj wolności” i “kraj niewoli” – […]

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Nilpotent matrix

In linear algebra, a nilpotent matrix is a square matrix N such that N k = 0 {\displaystyle N^{k}=0\,} for some positive integer k. The smallest such k is sometimes called the degree or index of N.[1] More generally, a nilpotent transformation is a linear transformation L of a vector space such that Lk = 0 for some positive integer k (and thus, Lj = 0 for all j ≥ k).[2][3][4] Both of these concepts are special cases of a more general concept of nilpotence that applies to elements of rings. Contents 1 Examples 2 Characterization 3 Classification 4 Flag of subspaces 5 Additional properties 6 Generalizations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links Examples[edit] The matrix M = [ 0 1 0 0 ] {\displaystyle M={\begin{bmatrix}0&1\\0&0\end{bmatrix}}} is nilpotent, since M2 = 0. More generally, any triangular matrix with 0s along the main diagonal is nilpotent, with degree ≤ n {\displaystyle \leq n} . For example, the matrix N = [ 0 2 1 6 0 […]

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Eyre Crabbe

Photograph circa 1900 Brigadier General Eyre Macdonnell Stewart Crabbe, CB (1852 – 8 March 1905) was a Grenadier Guards officer who fought in the Sudan campaign to rescue General Gordon and in the Second Boer War.[1] Contents 1 Background and early life 2 Military career 3 Family 4 References 5 External links Background and early life[edit] His father was Colonel Eyre John Crabbe of the 74th Regiment, himself the son of Colonel Joseph Crabbe of the East India Company’s army. His mother, Elmina Stewart, came from a Jamaica planter family. After education at Harrow School he joined the Grenadier Guards as a lieutenant on 18 October 1871 and was one of the first ensigns not to have to pay for a commission, following the Cardwell reforms. During service in Ireland as a young lieutenant he married in 1876 Emily Constance Jameson, a descendant of John Jameson, the founder of the Dublin distilling family. Military career[edit] Crabbe worked for several years […]

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Zug.com

Zug Type of site User-generated comedy Owner Media Shower, Inc. Created by Sir John Hargrave & Jay L Stevens Revenue Advertisement, sponsored content Slogan(s) Where Comedy Reigns Website Zug.com Alexa rank 20,937,001 (April 2014[update])[1] Registration Required Launched 1995 Current status Closed Zug (or ZUG) was a comedy website that was founded in 1995 by Sir[2] John Hargrave and Jay L Stevens (based on a concept by Sir John Hargrave and Genevieve Martineau). Contents 1 History 2 Articles 3 ZUG Live 4 Name 5 References History[edit] Beginning as a webzine, the site featured weekly comedy articles from Sir John Hargrave and a host of collaborators. As ZUG’s readership expanded, the site launched a threaded message board in 1998 called “GAB on ZUG” to allow readers to contribute additional humor content. This message board eventually became the backbone of the site, with “the world’s funniest comedy community” providing everything from comedy articles to caption contests. “GAB on ZUG” was renamed “ZUG Live” in October […]

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